A1C: A test that measures blood sugar or glucose levels for the previous
3 to 4 months.
Bad cholesterol: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. A high level
of bad cholesterol leads to a buildup of cholesterol in arteries and may lead to
Basal insulin: The insulin that provides the body with a steady, low level
of insulin throughout the day and night; may be given by intermediate- or long-acting
insulin injections or continuous release of faster-acting insulin in a pump.
Bolus insulin: The faster-acting (either regular or rapid-acting) insulin
that provides the boost of insulin needed to stop the rise in blood glucose levels
that occurs after meals; may be given as a before-meal injection or a before-meal
dose via an insulin pump.
Cholesterol: A fat-like substance that is found in the bloodstream and body
tissue. Cholesterol is used by the body to make hormones and build cell walls. However,
too much cholesterol can cause a disease that harms blood circulation.
Dietitian: A health care professional who advises people about meal planning,
weight control, and diabetes management.
Endocrinologist: A doctor who treats people who have endocrine gland problems
such as diabetes.
Fast-acting insulin analog: An insulin that works faster and for a shorter
period of time compared with regular human insulin; created by changing the chemical
structure of the insulin molecule.
Glucose: Also known as blood sugar, glucose is used by the body for fuel.
Glucose is produced when the digestive system breaks down food.
Good cholesterol: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Good cholesterol
helps the liver remove all cholesterol from your body. The higher your good cholesterol
level, the lower your chance of getting heart disease.
Hormone: A chemical made by the body to help it work in different ways. For
example, insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas to help the body use glucose as energy.
Hyperglycemia: A condition people with diabetes may experience when their
blood glucose levels are too high. Symptoms of hyperglycemia may include having
to urinate often, being very thirsty, and losing weight.
Hypoglycemia: A condition people with diabetes may experience when their
blood glucose levels are too low. Symptoms of hypoglycemia may include feeling anxious
or confused, feeling numb in the arms and hands, and shaking or feeling dizzy.
Insulin analog: A type of insulin in which the chemical structure of the
insulin molecule has been changed in some way.
Ketoacidosis: A serious condition caused by too little insulin; caused by
high levels of glucose and ketones in urine.
Ketones: Waste created when fat cells are burned for energy. In large amounts,
ketones alter the blood chemistry and can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis.
Nutritionist: A person with training in nutrition. A nutritionist may have
specialized training and qualifications, but may not.
Ophthalmologist: A medical doctor who diagnoses and treats all eye diseases
and eye disorders.
Pancreas: An organ in the body that produces insulin, which enables the body
to use glucose for energy.
Physiologic: Similar to the way the human body works naturally.
Podiatrist: Doctor that specializes in the feet. Podiatrists also provide
regular foot examinations and treatment.
Rapid-acting insulin analog: Also called a fast-acting insulin analog, this
is an insulin that works faster and for a shorter period of time compared with regular
human insulin; created by changing the chemical structure of the insulin molecule.
Regular human insulin: An older form of fast-acting insulin. With regular
human insulin, meals are eaten 30 minutes after insulin injection. In newer fast-acting
insulins, such as NovoLog®, meals can be eaten within 5 to 10 minutes.
What is basal-bolus therapy?
A fast-acting insulin analog like NovoLog® (insulin aspart [rDNA origin] injection) can be taken along with a long-acting insulin for better blood sugar control.
Individual results may vary.