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Type 2 diabetes, previously called adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin-dependent
diabetes mellitus, is the most common form of diabetes. It affects both children
and adults, but it is more commonly diagnosed in adults.
Insulin and type 2 diabetes
Insulin is a hormone made by the
pancreas. The pancreas releases insulin to help the body use sugar as
fuel. When blood sugar levels rise, such as after meals, the pancreas releases more
insulin. In this way, insulin controls levels of blood sugar in the body by moving
it to areas that use it.
With type 2 diabetes, the body cannot use the insulin it makes to control blood
sugar, or there isnʼt enough insulin. When the body first starts to have problems
using insulin properly, it is called insulin resistance. As a result of insulin
resistance, the body needs more insulin to work. At first, the pancreas produces
more insulin. But after a while, the pancreas is not able to produce enough insulin
to control the blood sugar in the body.
With type 2 diabetes, the sugar stays in the bloodstream, where it builds up and
becomes too high. These high blood sugar levels can lead to the symptoms of type
2 diabetes. Diabetes medicines, may become necessary when people with type 2 diabetes
need more help controlling blood sugar.
Type 2 diabetes symptoms
People with type 2 diabetes may not show any symptoms at first. Symptoms of type
2 diabetes may include the symptoms of type 1 diabetes, such as
- Increased thirst and hunger
- Frequent urination
- Weight loss
- Blurry vision
- Feeling very tired
People with type 2 diabetes may also have problems with
- Infections of the skin, gums, or bladder
- Scrapes or bruises healing slower than usual
- Tingling or numbness in the limbs
What causes type 2 diabetes?
Some people have a higher chance of developing type 2 diabetes than others. This
includes people who are overweight and those who are not physically active very
often. Other factors may include older age or a family history of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes treatment
It's important for people with this form of diabetes to choose the right foods and
to get plenty of exercise. Treatment for type 2 diabetes includes taking insulin
regularly. A rapid or fast-acting insulin analog,
such as NovoLog® (insulin aspart [rDNA origin] injection), combined with a long-acting
insulin, offers a dosing schedule that can be adjusted around meals.